📕 subnode [[@neil/half earth socialism]] in 📚 node [[half-earth-socialism]]
📕 text contributed by @neil 🔗 ️👁 ️📝

Half-Earth Socialism

A : [[book]]

URL : https://www.versobooks.com/books/3818-half-earth-socialism

Damn, it's a good book. It ticks so many boxes for me. [[Socialist calculation debate]], [[Markets vs planning]], [[climate science]], [[climate breakdown]], [[eco-socialism]], [[Project Cybersyn]], [[Viable system model]], etc etc.

And I like that it has some [[speculative fiction]] and homage to things like [[News from Nowhere]].

Plus, the accompanying game that you can play at https://play.half.earth is brilliant.

Main nub of it:

A kind of socialism based on the recognition of ecological limits and the limits of our understanding of the natural world. Envronmental crisis can only be overcome by socialism, because only socialism allows humans to decide to manage economic growth (impossible under capitalism). Socialists have to be environmentalists because they have to realise that total control over nature is impossible, the more we intervene in nature the more risks we take, such as pandemics and climate change. Also arguging for Neurathian conscious control of the economy. We propose rewilding half of the planet, having energy quotas, and veganism, to reduce our impact on nature, while also ensuring a good life for all.

[[Drew Pendergrass and Troy Vettese on Half Earth Socialism]]

In [[Climate Leviathan]] terms, I would suggest that their proposals fit as a mixture of [[Climate Mao]] and [[Climate X]] - i.e. staunchly socialist and non-capitalist, with a mixture of central authority and democratic decentralisation.

Quotes

Also check the backlinks.

our book, after all, belongs to the [[utopian]] tradition

Our framework draws on [[ecology]], [[energy studies]], [[epidemiology]], [[cybernetics]], [[history]], [[mathematics]], [[climate modelling]], [[utopian socialism]], and, yes, [[neoliberalism]]

The environmental crisis forces us to decide between controlling the market and controlling nature

Think then of Half-Earth Socialism as a cookbook divided into four courses: the philosophical, the material, the technical, and the imaginative

The main course, the third chapter, delves into the devilishly difficult problem of [[planning]]. If it is necessary to prevent the market commodifying and controlling all of nature, and we also have a sense of what material goals we want to achieve, how then is it possible to organize production and consumption without a market? We draw on a range of influences, including [[Soviet cybernetics]] and mathematics, Chile’s ‘[[Cybersyn]]’ programme, [[meteorology]], and cutting-edge [[integrated assessment models]] (IAMs) used by climate scientists today.

We invite everyone from all liberatory traditions to join us in the revolutionary kitchen to think up many new recipes and work together to realize them

We follow his example of digging deep into the epistemic layers of our beliefs, but whereas Hayek covered the market with the veil of ignorance, we drape that veil over nature

Each of these thinkers is a primogenitor of one of the three great lineages in environmental thought: Hegel’s [[Prometheanism]], [[Malthusianism]], and [[Jennerite ecological scepticism]]

The environmental crisis, however, strains the neoliberals’ foundational postulates because they have to decide what is more complex and unknowable – the market or nature

One can go beyond Boulding by giving his framework a Jennerite twist: Earth is a natural machine, both ancient and alien, whose operating systems we will never fathom, and therefore it is wisest to let the ghost in the shell control the circuitry even if we do not always understand it ourselves

Rather than the conscious control of nature, the neoliberals seek one unconscious realm (nature) to be subdued by another (capital

In response, we try to out-Hayek Hayek by arguing that nature is more unknowable than the market, and therefore far more deserving of our awe as an unconscious, decentralized, and unimaginably complex system

The process of nature’s humanization stops not when it is realized, but when our species comes to recognize that this process undermines the basis of human freedom. Climate change, emerging zoonotic diseases, and other environmental crises make a mockery of this pretence of control. To bring the humanization of nature to an end, the collective consciousness (Geist) must become aware of its own limits

The task of unbuilding makes clear that environmentalism isn’t so much the idealization of ‘pristine’ nature (though it is vital to protect intact ecosystems) but the recognition that it is still possible to repair our broken world

The goals of Half-Earth socialism are simple enough: prevent the [[Sixth Extinction]], practise ‘natural geoengineering’ to draw down carbon through rewilded ecosystems rather than SRM, and create a fully [[renewable energy]] system

way to save land would be to produce less energy, which is why Half-Earth socialism embraces quotas. The exact number can be debated, but we admire the target of the [[2,000-Watt Society]]

An economic system resembling Half-Earth socialism can actually be found in recent history: Cuba’s [[Período Especial]]

necessary to marry Kantorovich’s technical vision to Neurath’s [[democratic socialism]], in which planners lay out their goals and constraints in natural units and then devise different plans that could be chosen by an informed public

similar to [[P2P Accounting for Planetary Survival]]?

In this chapter, we will detail how to organize a democratically planned economy in an age of ecological crisis

Even a wisely managed eco-socialist utopia would still be plagued by some inefficiencies and shortages, as we will discuss later in the chapter. However, we believe that it is worth paying to gain other advantages, such as a [[stable climate]], wondrous [[biodiversity]], and a respite from pandemics. Half-Earth socialism also promises the prospect of a unified humanity, peace, and equality, with an economy

Half-Earth socialism requires a similar balancing act, supplying everyone with the material foundations for a good life – sustenance, shelter, education, art, health – while protecting the biosphere from destabilization

[[Doughnut Economics]]-y.

While the static, one-off calculations made using linear programming are a valuable tool in managing any complicated project – the method is ubiquitous in contemporary applied mathematics, including in planning renewable energy systems – we will need other tools to allow local administrators to meet the needs of the people they serve, while simultaneously achieving global goals such as rewilding or long-distance trade.

There were two main currents that shaped planning debates in the Soviet Union over the following decade: the theory of mathematical optimization (e.g., linear programming) and the cybernetic theory of control, built around differential equations

Thirdly, and perhaps more importantly, these loosely connected models create space for democracy, diversity, and political initiative, all unified in pursuit of national or even global goals

Although Chile in the early 1970s might seem far removed from the global crises in the 2020s, Cybersyn is perhaps the closest historical analogue to Half-Earth socialism

In our effort to understand how Half-Earth socialism could work in practice, we have undertaken a tour of socialist planning theory that has travelled from Leningrad to Vienna to Novosibirsk and finally to Santiago. At this point, we return to Siberia some two decades after Kantorovich’s work at CEMI began.

[[Olga Burmatova]]

As Kantorovich noted in his vision of multilevel linear programming, a planned society needs a way to balance an overarching national or global vision with sensitivity to local conditions

[[climate science]]. [[Downscaling]]. [[Data assimilation]].

All this data does not mean that we fully know nature, only that Half-Earth socialist planners would have access to the vital signs of the planet so they could modify humanity’s interchange with nature when necessary

[[János Kornai]], [[shortage economy]]

However, it is the third chapter that tackles the difficult problem of organizing production and distribution without the market. Half-Earth socialist planning is inspired by a slew of traditions, including Neurath’s in natura calculation, Kantorovich’s linear programming, Beer’s Cybersyn, and the climate-economy models of Austria’s IIASA

British socialist utopians in this period were a tightly knit group. [[Oswald]] might have been an acquaintance of [[William Godwin]], whose utopian writings provoked Malthus to write his Essay on Population. Godwin, who dabbled in vegetarianism, knew herbivorous radicals [[Robert Owen]] and [[Percy Shelley]]

We hope that Orwell spins in his grave when Half-Earth socialism becomes a movement, radiant in its queer, feminist, vegetarian glory

The other inheritor of the unorthodox Left was the [[Frankfurt School]], whose theorists criticized the destruction wrought by the mindless conquest of nature. Adorno, Horkheimer, and Benjamin, as well as Alfred Schmidt and Herbert Marcuse, all contributed to the foundations of eco-socialism

The point, however, is not simply to substitute socialist utopianism for Promethean Marxism, but rather to strive for a synthesis of the two to create a new, epistemically humble socialism.

humanity faces a choice: to futilely try to further the humanization of nature through mad schemes like geoengineering, or to plan an economy within planetary boundaries.

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