πŸ“š node [[digital commons]]

digital commons

  • a [[thing]].
    • [[pull]] [[commons]] [[digital]]
      • the [[internet]] provides the ability to construct an essentially infinite number of [[digital commons]] by definition as long and as far as you allow copying.
        • this is why I am against reductions of [[copyright]] in general.
      • whatever can be copied for free can be freely shared and is thus part of the [[commons]].
  • a [[list]].
    • the [[agora]].
    • (you can add items in the [[stoa]] below)

Digital commons

Stuff like information, data, culture and knowledge which are maintained as a shared resource by an online community.

For example, projects in the area of:

Wikipedia is a well known one.

What is a digital commons?

Digital commons are a subset of the commons, where the resources are data, information, culture and knowledge which are created and/or maintained online.

– [[dulongderosnay2020: Digital commons]]

The digital [[commons]] are a form of commons involving the distribution and communal ownership of informational resources and technology.

– Digital commons (economics) - Wikipedia

Distribution and communal ownership of informational resources and technology. That could cover a lot of stuff…

Resources are typically designed to be used by the community by which they are created.

– Digital commons (economics) - Wikipedia

^ that's true of commons in general, but seems like it wouldn't need to be quite the case for digital commons… in that they are easier to be used beyond the community that creates them.

The distinction between digital commons and other digital resources is that the community of people building them can intervene in the governing of their interaction processes and of their shared resources.

– Digital commons (economics) - Wikipedia

Digital commons is a (the?) commons centred on digital media and digital devices - might include many kinds of automation, guidance of material systems, provisioning and transportation of material goods etc. bringing a major focus on the digital capability and literacy of the commoners. It's a material commons of code, devices, media, enabled and stewarded by cultural capability (aka skill)

– [[Mike Hales]] https://social.coop/@mike_hales/107430505867111451

Examples of digital commons

The [[free software]] movement in general is called a digital commons (by Wikipedia at least).

Examples of the digital commons include wikis, open-source software, and open-source licensing.

– Digital commons (economics) - Wikipedia

[[Free culture]], [[public domain]], [[open data]] and [[open access]] are mentioned in [[dulongderosnay2020: Digital commons]].

This research publication from [[IPPR]] seems to focus on data as a digital commons:

It requires a broader understanding of data as a public resource, but one of an exceptional kind: that there is space for market-based approaches, and for some direct state regulation, but that data will increasingly often require the creation of new forms of ownership and control, out of the hands of either market or state institutions.

– [[Creating a digital commons]]

Commoning a digital commons

Social life of a digital commons

Stewarding a digital commons

How would you protect it from enclosure? i.e. how would you [[Actively Thwart Enclosure & Cooptation]] in a digital commons?

Typically, information created in the digital commons is designed to stay in the digital commons by using various forms of licensing, including the [[GNU General Public License]] and various [[Creative Commons]] licenses.

Provisioning a digital commons

Compared to knowledge commons

I wonder how digital commons compares to [[knowledge commons]]? Perhaps just that some knowledge commons are digital commmons, and some digital commons are knowledge commons?

Issues

It is also worth noting that a commons can get the mix of collective control and individualism wrong. A group may exert a suffocating presence on the individual, or on certain types of individuals. Patriarchy is a problem in many subsistence and digital commons despite women’s significant role in commoning.

– [[Free, Fair and Alive]]

[[Tragedy of the digital commons]]? (there's a paper on it, not read it though)

πŸ“– stoas
β₯… related node [[commons]] pulled by user

Commons

[[I like commons]].

In a nutshell: 'a commons' is a shared thing between a bunch of people that they actively maintain together.

The idea is that they are "beyond market and state".

Commons can be found in all kinds of walks of life - the environment (grazing lands, fisheries, community forests), culture, digital realm, knowledge commons.

There's a lot to unpack. My favourite book on commons and commoning is [[Free, Fair and Alive]].

What is a commons?

Also what's the difference between 'the Commons' and 'a commons'?

The Commons is a means of provisioning and governance that generally doesn't need the permission of legislatures or courts to move forward.

– [[David Bollier]], [[Stir to Action]] Issue 30

The commons are cared for by the those that directly inhabit and gain from its wealth.

– [[Seeding the Wild]]

Despite vivid differences among commons focused on natural resources, digital systems, and social mutuality, they all share structural and social similarities.

– [[Free, Fair and Alive]]

So instead of conceiving of commons as closed systems of common property managed by a β€œclub,” it is more productive to see them as social organisms who, thanks to their [[semi-permeable membrane]]s, can interact with larger forces of life β€” communities, ecosystems, other commons.

– [[Free, Fair and Alive]]

The commons is not simply about β€œsharing,” as it happens in countless areas of life. It is about sharing and bringing into being durable social systems for producing shareable things and activities.

– [[Free, Fair and Alive]]

Commons are living social systems through which people address their shared problems in self-organized ways.

– [[Free, Fair and Alive]]

The commons is a robust class of self-organized social practices for meeting needs in fair, inclusive ways.

– [[Free, Fair and Alive]]

Each commons depends on social processes, the sharing of knowledge, and physical resources. Each shares challenges in bringing together the social, the political (governance), and the economic (provisioning) into an integrated whole.

– [[Free, Fair and Alive]]

The elemental human impulse that we are born with β€” to help others, to improve existing practices β€” ripens into a stable social form with countless variations: a commons.

– [[Free, Fair and Alive]]

How big is a commons?

In a commons, the resource can be small and serve a tiny group (the family refrigerator), it can be community-level (sidewalks, playgrounds, libraries, and so on), or it can extend to international and global levels (deep seas, the atmosphere, the Internet, and scientific knowledge).

– [[Understanding Knowledge as a Commons]]

The commons can be well bounded (a community park or library); transboundary (the Danube River, migrating wildlife, the Internet); or without clear boundaries (knowledge, the ozone layer).

– [[Understanding Knowledge as a Commons]]

Why?

the commons is not just about small-scale projects for improving everyday life. It is a germinal vision for reimagining our future together and reinventing social organization, economics, infrastructure, politics, and state power itself.

– [[Free, Fair and Alive]]

The commons is a social form that enables people to enjoy freedom without repressing others, enact fairness without bureaucratic control, foster togetherness without compulsion, and assert sovereignty without nationalism.

– [[Free, Fair and Alive]]

A commons … gives community life a clear focus. It depends on democracy in its truest form. It destroys inequality. It provides an incentive to protect the living world. It creates, in sum, a politics of belonging.”

– [[Free, Fair and Alive]]

Politics of it

The world of commoning represents a profound challenge to capitalism because it is based on a very different ontology.

– [[Free, Fair and Alive]]

Difficulties for commons

Potential problems in the use, governance, and sustainability of a commons can be caused by some characteristic human behaviors that lead to social dilemmas such as competition for use, free riding, and over- harvesting. Typical threats to knowledge commons are commodification or enclosure, pollution and degradation, and nonsustainability.

– [[Understanding Knowledge as a Commons]]

Related

The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately - [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commons wikipedia]

pull target='_blank'>

Sustainable development [https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sustainable_development.svg - wikimedia]

Federated Commons

Here we research the [[pragmatix]] of building a [[federated commons]]. This form of architecture has emerged from work on [[federated wiki]], alongside social groups in many countries (particularly [[DIEM25]]).

We do not have a lot of research on this topic of a [[federated architecture]] suitable for the commons.

Modern Use

The definition from the [[Digital Library of the Commons]] is;

"the commons is a general term for shared resources in which each stakeholder has an equal interest"

The term "commons" derives from the traditional English legal term for [[common land]], which are also known as "commons", and was popularised in the modern sense as a shared resource term by the ecologist [[Garrett Hardin]] in an influential 1968 article called [[The Tragedy of the Commons]].

As Frank van Laerhoven & [[Elinor Ostrom]] have stated; "Prior to the publication of Hardin’s article on the tragedy of the commons (1968), titles containing the words β€˜the commons,’ β€˜common pool resources,’ or β€˜common property’ were very rare in the academic literature" - [https://www.thecommonsjournal.org/articles/abstract/10.18352/ijc.76/ thecommonsjournal.org]

Types of commons

  1. [[Environmental Commons]]
    • European land use
    • Mongolian grasslands
    • Lobster fishery of Maine
    • Community forests in Nepal
    • Irrigation systems of New Mexico
  2. [[Cultural Commons]]
  3. [[Digital Commons]]

Economic theories

Tragedy of the commons

A commons failure theory, now called [[tragedy of the commons]], originated in the 18th century. In 1833 [[William Forster Lloyd]] introduced the concept by a hypothetical example of herders overusing a shared parcel of land on which they are each entitled to let their cows graze, to the detriment of all users of the common land - [http://www.jstor.org/stable/1972412 jstor]

The same concept has been called the "tragedy of the fishers", when over-fishing could cause stocks to plummet.

It has been said the dissolution of the traditional land commons played a watershed role in landscape development and cooperative land use patterns and property rights. However, as in the British Isles, such changes took place over several centuries as a result of land [[enclosure]].

Economist Peter Barnes has proposed a 'sky trust' to fix this tragedic problem in worldwide generic commons. He claims that the sky belongs to all the people, and companies do not have a right to over pollute. It is a type of cap and dividend program. Ultimately the goal would be to make polluting excessively more expensive than cleaning what is being put back into the atmosphere.

Successful commons

While the original work on the tragedy of the commons concept suggested that all commons were doomed to failure, they are still extremely important in the modern world.

Work by later economists has found many examples of very successful commons and [[Elinor Ostrom]] won the [[Nobel prize]] for analysing situations where they operate successfully.

For example, Ostrom found that grazing commons in the [[Swiss Alps]] have been run successfully for many hundreds of years by the farmers there - [http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2012/06/12/154872185/remembering-elinor-ostrom-nobel-laureate npr.org]

Allied to this is the [[Comedy of the Commons]] concept, where very often users of the commons are able to develop mechanisms to police their use to maintain and even improve the state of the commons. This term was coined in an essay by legal scholar, Carol M. Rose, in 1986.

Other related concepts are the [[Inverse Commons]], [[Cornucupia of the Commons]], [[Triumph of the Commons]] in the cornucupia of the commons, some types of commons, such as open source software, work better as in those cases.

"the grass grows taller when it is grazed on"

Notable theorists

Historical land commons movements

Contemporary commons movements

See also

See also

"There is no commons without commoning." (attributed to [[Peter Linebaugh: Zitate]])

Here we collect commons definitions and explain the meaning of the word 'commons'.

β₯… related node [[digital]] pulled by user empty.
β₯… related node [[governing-the-commons]] pulled by user
β₯± context
β₯… related node [[creating a digital commons]]
β₯… related node [[creative commons]]
β₯… related node [[digital commons]]
β₯… related node [[dulongderosnay2020 digital commons]]
β₯… related node [[flancian]]
β₯… related node [[free culture]]
β₯… related node [[free fair and alive]]
β₯… related node [[free software]]
β₯… related node [[gnu general public license]]
β₯… related node [[internet]]
β₯… related node [[ippr]]
β₯… related node [[knowledge commons]]
β₯… related node [[list]]
β₯… related node [[mike hales]]
β₯… related node [[open access]]
β₯… related node [[open data]]
β₯… related node [[public domain]]
β₯… related node [[stoa]]
β₯… related node [[thing]]
β₯… related node [[towards a knowledge commons]]
β₯… related node [[tragedy of the digital commons]]